CE for Reading JINS

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CE for Reading JINS2017-12-27T12:21:25+00:00

2.5 CE Credits: JINS Special Issue: INS 50th Anniversary - Neurological Disorders (JINS 23:9-10, 2017): CE Bundle 2

2.5 Hours of Continuing Education credits are available for reading this series. You must read ALL FOUR critical reviews in order to receive credit, and you must pass the evaluation with a score of at least 75%.

On this page you may review the learning objectives for this series, as well as the titles, authors, and abstracts for each critical review.

CLICK HERE to view this overall issue on the Cambridge University Press website.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES FOR THIS SERIES:

At the completion of reading these materials, learners will be able to:

  1. Discuss major changes in the neuropsychology of epilepsy over the last several decades.
  2. Describe major scientific advances in research on traumatic brain injury (TBI)
  3. Describe underlying pathophysiology and biomarker techniques to detect Alzheimer’s disease in its earliest stages.
  4. Describe current knowledge in the neuropsychological assessment and treatment of cognitive dysfunction in adult and pediatric MS patients.

INDIVIDUAL ARTICLE TITLES AND AUTHORS:

Paradigm Shifts in the Neuropsychology of Epilepsy

Bruce Hermann, David W. Loring and Sarah Wilson

This article reviews the major paradigm shifts that have occurred in the area of the application of clinical and experimental neuropsychology to epilepsy and epilepsy surgery since the founding of the International Neuropsychological Society. The five paradigm shifts discussed include: 1) The neurobiology of cognitive disorders in epilepsy – expanding the landscape of syndrome-specific neuropsychological impairment; 2) pathways to comorbidities: bidirectional relationships and their clinical implications; 3) discovering quality of life: The concept, its quantification and applicability; 4) outcomes of epilepsy surgery: challenging conventional wisdom; and 5) Iatrogenic effects of treatment: cognitive and behavioral effects of antiepilepsy drugs. For each area we characterize the status of knowledge, the key developments that have occurred, and how they have altered our understanding of the epilepsies and their management. We conclude with a brief overview of where we believe the field will be headed in the next decade which includes changes in assessment paradigms, moving from characterization of comorbidities to interventions; increasing development of new measures, terminology and classification; increasing interest in neurodegenerative proteins; transitioning from clinical seizure features to modifiable risk factors; and neurobehavioral phenotypes. Overall, enormous progress has been made over the lifespan of the INS with promise of ongoing improvements in understanding of the cognitive and behavioral complications of the epilepsies and their treatment. (JINS, 2017, 23, 791–805)

The Neuropsychology of Traumatic Brain Injury: Looking Back, Peering Ahead

Keith Owen Yeates, Harvey S. Levin and Jennie Ponsford

The past 50 years have been a period of exciting progress in neuropsychological research on traumatic brain injury (TBI). Neuropsychologists and neuropsychological testing have played a critical role in these advances. This study looks back at three major scientific advances in research on TBI that have been critical in pushing the field forward over the past several decades: The advent of modern neuroimaging; the recognition of the importance of non-injury factors in determining recovery from TBI; and the growth of cognitive rehabilitation. Thanks to these advances, we now have a better understanding of the pathophysiology of TBI and how recovery from the injury is also shaped by pre-injury, comorbid, and contextual factors, and we also have increasing evidence that active interventions, including cognitive rehabilitation, can help to promote better outcomes. The study also peers ahead to discern two important directions that seem destined to influence research on TBI over the next 50 years: the development of large, multi-site observational studies and randomized controlled trials, bolstered by international research consortia and the adoption of common data elements; and attempts to translate research into health care and health policy by the application of rigorous methods drawn from implementation science. Future research shaped by these trends should provide critical evidence regarding the outcomes of TBI and its treatment, and should help to disseminate and implement the knowledge gained from research to the betterment of the quality of life of persons with TBI. (JINS, 2017, 23, 806–817)

Alzheimer’s Disease: Past, Present, and Future

Mark W. Bondi, Emily C. Edmonds and David P. Salmon

Although dementia has been described in ancient texts over many centuries (e.g., “Be kind to your father, even if his mind fail him.” – Old Testament: Sirach 3:12), our knowledge of its underlying causes is little more than a century old. Alzheimer published his now famous case study only 110 years ago, and our modern understanding of the disease that bears his name, and its neuropsychological consequences, really only began to accelerate in the 1980s. Since then we have witnessed an explosion of basic and translational research into the causes, characterizations, and possible treatments for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other dementias. We review this lineage of work beginning with Alzheimer’s own writings and drawings, then jump to the modern era beginning in the 1970s and early 1980s and provide a sampling of neuropsychological and other contextual work from each ensuing decade. During the 1980s our field began its foundational studies of profiling the neuropsychological deficits associated with AD and its differentiation from other dementias (e.g., cortical vs. subcortical dementias). The 1990s continued these efforts and began to identify the specific cognitive mechanisms affected by various neuropathologic substrates. The 2000s ushered in a focus on the study of prodromal stages of neurodegenerative disease before the full-blown dementia syndrome (i.e., mild cognitive impairment). The current decade has seen the rise of imaging and other biomarkers to characterize preclinical disease before the development of significant cognitive decline. Finally, we suggest future directions and predictions for dementia-related research and potential therapeutic interventions. (JINS, 2017, 23, 818–831)

Neuropsychology of Multiple Sclerosis: Looking Back and Moving Forward

Ralph H.B. Benedict, John DeLuca, Christian Enzinger, Jeroen J.G. Geurts, Lauren B. Krupp and Stephen M. Rao

The neuropsychological aspects of multiple sclerosis (MS) have evolved over the past three decades. What was once thought to be a rare occurrence, cognitive dysfunction is now viewed as one of the most disabling symptoms of the disease, with devastating effects on patients’ quality of life. This selective review will highlight major innovations and scientific discoveries in the areas of neuropathology, neuroimaging, diagnosis, and treatment that pertain to our understanding of the neuropsychological aspects of MS. Specifically, we focus on the recent discovery that MS produces pathogical lesions of gray matter (GM) that have consequences for cognitive functions. Methods for imaging these GM lesions in MS are discussed along with multimodal imaging studies that integrate structural and functional imaging methods to provide a better understanding of the relationship between cognitive test performance and functional reserve. Innovations in the screening and comprehensive assessment of cognitive disorders are presented along with recent research that examines cognitive dysfunction in pediatric MS. Results of innovative outcome studies in cognitive rehabilitation are discussed. Finally, we highlight trends for potential future innovations over the next decade. (JINS, 2017, 23, 832–842)