1.5 CE Credits - Special Issue: The Neuropsychology of Neurodevelopmental Disorders II

1.5 Hours of Continuing Education credits are available for reading this series. You must read ALL listed critical reviews below in order to receive credit, and you must pass the evaluation with a score of at least 75%.

On this page you may review the learning objectives for this series, as well as the titles, authors, and abstracts for each critical review.

CLICK HERE to view this overall issue on the Cambridge University Press website.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES FOR THIS SERIES:

At the completion of reading these materials, learners will be able to:
  1. Describe cognitive and cerebellar outcomes in congenital heart disease (CHD).
  2. Explain the proposed mechanisms by which the cerebellum is related to executive functioning (in CHD).
  3. Describe the spacing effect and the use of distributed practice as a memory enhancement tool.
  4. Describe developmental amnesia and the impact of hippocampal pathology on memory.
  5. Describe the relationship between childhood executive functioning and young adult outcomes in individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS).
  6. List how these relationships are different in 22q11DS relative to control participants.

Individual Article Titles And Authors:

Posterior Cerebellar Volume and Executive Function in Young Adults With Congenital Heart Disease

Eric S. Semmel, Vonetta M. Dotson, Thomas G. Burns, William T. Mahle, AND Tricia Z. King

Objectives: As the number of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) surviving congenital heart disease (CHD) grows, studies of long-term outcomes are needed. CHD research documents poor executive function (EF) and cerebellum (CB) abnormalities in children. We examined whether AYAs with CHD exhibit reduced EF and CB volumes. We hypothesized a double dissociation such that the posterior CB is related to EF while the anterior CB is related to motor function. We also investigated whether the CB contributes to EF above and beyond processing speed. Methods: Twenty-two AYAs with CHD and 22 matched healthy controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging and assessment of EF, processing speed, and motor function. Volumetric data were calculated using a cerebellar atlas (SUIT) developed for SPM. Group differences were compared with t tests, relationships were tested with Pearson’s correlations and Fisher’s r to z transformation, and hierarchical regression was used to test the CB’s unique contributions to EF. Results: CHD patients had reduced CB total, lobular, and white matter volume (d=.52–.99) and poorer EF (d=.79–1.01) compared to controls. Significant correlations between the posterior CB and EF (r=.29–.48) were identified but there were no relationships between the anterior CB and motor function nor EF. The posterior CB predicted EF above and beyond processing speed (ps<.001). Conclusions: This study identified a relationship between the posterior CB and EF, which appears to be particularly important for inhibitory processes and abstract reasoning. The unique CB contribution to EF above and beyond processing speed alone warrants further study. (JINS, 2018, 24, 939–948)

Ameliorating Episodic Memory Deficits in a Young Adult With Developmental (Congenital) Amnesia

Alice S.N. Kim, Foujan Minooei Saberi, Melody Wiseheart, AND R. Shayna Rosenbaum

Objectives: Although the spacing effect has been investigated extensively in a variety of populations, few studies have focused on individuals with hippocampal amnesia and none, to our knowledge, have investigated differences in performance as a function of spacing schedule in these cases. In the current study, we investigated the benefit of expanding and equal-interval, compared to massed, spacing schedules in a developmental amnesic person, H.C., who shows congenitally based abnormal development of the hippocampal memory system. Methods: Given the possibility of plasticity and reorganization in the developing brain, we investigated whether H.C. would benefit more from an expanding versus equal-interval schedule using a continuous recognition paradigm, even though this task has been shown to recruit structures within the medial temporal lobe, including the hippocampus. Results: H.C. and matched controls both showed a clear spacing effect, although neither group benefited more from an equal-interval or expanding spacing schedule. Conclusions: The results of the current study show that the spacing effect is an effective and clinically meaningful memory intervention technique that may be applied to clinical conditions known to affect hippocampal function and episodic memory early in life. (JINS, 2018, 24, 1003–1012)

Childhood Executive Functioning Predicts Young Adult Outcomes in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

Avery B. Albert, Tamara Abu-Ramadan, Wendy R. Kates, Wanda Fremont, AND Kevin M. Antshel1

Objective: While individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) are at increased risk for a variety of functional impairments and psychiatric disorders, including psychosis, not all individuals with 22q11DS experience negative outcomes. Efforts to further understand which childhood variables best predict adult functional outcomes are needed, especially those that investigate childhood executive functioning abilities. Methods: This longitudinal study followed 63 individuals with 22q11DS and 43 control participants over 9 years. Childhood executive functioning ability was assessed using both rater-based and performance-based measures and tested as predictors of young adult outcomes. Results: Childhood global executive functioning abilities and parent report of child executive functioning abilities were the most consistent predictors of young adult outcomes. The study group moderated the relationship between child executive functioning and young adult outcomes for several outcomes such that the relationships were stronger in the 22q11DS sample. Conclusion: Rater-based and performance-based measures of childhood executive functioning abilities predicted young adult outcomes in individuals with and without 22q11DS. Executive functioning could be a valuable target for treatment in children with 22q11DS for improving not only childhood functioning but also adult outcomes. (JINS, 2018, 24, 905–916)