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Episode 80 | Cognitive Reserve - With Dr. Yaakov Stern


This episode is a conversation about cognitive reserve, which is a heuristic that helps explain variation across people in their ability to withstand neuropathology and brain damage. We discuss terminology, including defining and differentiating cognitive reserve, brain reserve, brain maintenance and resilience. We also cover sociobehavioral proxies for cognitive reserve, functional neuroimaging, and clinical applications.

apa-logo_white_screenThe International Neuropsychological Society is approved by the American Psychological Association to sponsor continuing education for psychologists. The International Neuropsychological Society maintains responsibility for this program and its content.

Yaakov Stern
Instructor Credentials

Dr. Yaakov Stern, Ph.D., is the Florence Irving Professor of Neuropsychology in the Departments of Neurology, Psychiatry, and Psychology, and the Taub Institute for the Research on Alzheimer’s Disease and the Aging Brain. Dr. Stern is chief of the Cognitive Neuroscience Division in the Department of Neurology.

Dr. Stern’s research focuses on cognition in normal aging and in diseases of aging, particularly Alzheimer’s disease. A strong theme in his research is exploring individual differences in task performance in general and, more specifically, the reason why some individuals show more cognitive deficit than others in the face of brain insult. This has led to the cognitive reserve hypothesis, which provides rationale for intervening to improve cognitive aging. He directs the Reference Ability Neural Network study, a large-scale longitudinal study designed to isolate brain activation and morphological features associated with specific cognitive abilities. He has directed several clinical trials and is currently also involved in several additional, ongoing studies of cognition in normal aging, studies of the heterogeneity of Alzheimer’s disease and epidemiologic studies of aging, Alzheimer’s disease incidence and progression His research approach includes classic neuropsychological and cognitive experimental techniques with a strong focus on functional imaging. He has published over 600 peer-reviewed papers, numerous chapters, and edited a book on cognitive reserve.

Topics Covered
  • TBD
Educational Objectives
  • Define and differentiate brain reserve, brain maintenance, and cognitive reserve.
  • Describe the three basic types of variables needed for a cognitive reserve study.
  • Discuss sociobehavioral proxies for and functional neuroimaging approaches to studying cognitive reserve.
  • Apply knowledge of cognitive reserve when conceptualizing current cognitive abilities in adult and older adult patients and when providing feedback.
Target Audience
  • Introductory
  • Date Available: 2021-10-01
  • You may obtain CE for this podcast at any time.
Offered for CE
  • Yes
  • Members $20
  • Non-Members $25
Refund Policy
  • This podcast is not eligible for refunds
CE Credits
  • 1.0 Credit(s)
  • Dr. Stern receives financial compensation as a consultant for Esai

  • N/A
  • Bartrés‐Faz, D., Arenaza‐Urquijo, E., Ewers, M., Belleville, S., Chételat, G., Franzmeier, N., ... & Vemuri, P. (2020). Theoretical frameworks and approaches used within the Reserve, Resilience and Protective Factors professional interest area of the Alzheimer's Association International Society to Advance Alzheimer's Research and Treatment. Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring, 12(1), e12115.
  • Boyle, R., Knight, S. P., De Looze, C., Carey, D., Scarlett, S., Stern, Y., ... & Whelan, R. (2021). Verbal intelligence, not level of education, robustly assesses cognitive reserve. ResearchSquare. DOI: 10.21203/
  • Gazes, Y., Lee, S., Fang, Z., Mensing, A., Noofoory, D., Nazario, G. H., ... & Stern, Y. (2021). IQ moderation of cognitive decline supports cognitive reserve and not brain maintenance. medRxiv.
  • Habeck, C., Razlighi, Q., Gazes, Y., Barulli, D., Steffener, J., & Stern, Y. (2017). Cognitive reserve and brain maintenance: Orthogonal concepts in theory and practice. Cerebral Cortex, 27(8), 3962-3969.
  • Herrero, P., Contador, I., Stern, Y., Fernández-Calvo, B., Sánchez, A., & Ramos, F. (2020). Influence of cognitive reserve in schizophrenia: A systematic review. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 108, 149-159.
  • Katzman, R., Aronson, M., Fuld, P., Kawas, C., Brown, T., Morgenstern, H., ... & Ooi, W. L. (1989). Development of dementing illnesses in an 80‐year‐old volunteer cohort. Annals of Neurology: Official Journal of the American Neurological Association and the Child Neurology Society, 25(4), 317-324.
  • McQuail, J. A., Dunn, A. R., Stern, Y., Barnes, C. A., Kempermann, G., Rapp, P. R., ... & Foster, T. C. (2021). Cognitive reserve in model systems for mechanistic discovery: The importance of longitudinal studies. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 12, 532.
  • O'Shea, D. M., Fieo, R. A., Hamilton, J. L., Zahodne, L. B., Manly, J. J., & Stern, Y. (2015). Examining the association between late‐life depressive symptoms, cognitive function, and brain volumes in the context of cognitive reserve. International journal of geriatric psychiatry, 30(6), 614-622.
  • Perneczky, R., Kempermann, G., Korczyn, A. D., Matthews, F. E., Ikram, M. A., Scarmeas, N., ... & Ewers, M. (2019). Translational research on reserve against neurodegenerative disease: consensus report of the International Conference on Cognitive Reserve in the Dementias and the Alzheimer’s Association Reserve, Resilience and Protective Factors Professional Interest Area working groups. BMC medicine, 17(1), 1-15.
  • Stern, Y. (2006). Cognitive reserve and Alzheimer disease. Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders, 20, S69-S74.
  • Stern, Y. (2009). Cognitive reserve. Neuropsychologia, 47(10), 2015-2028.
  • Stern, Y. (2012). Cognitive reserve in ageing and Alzheimer's disease. The Lancet Neurology, 11(11), 1006-1012.
  • Stern, Y., Arenaza‐Urquijo, E. M., Bartrés‐Faz, D., Belleville, S., Cantilon, M., Chetelat, G., ... & Reserve, Resilience and Protective Factors PIA Empirical Definitions and Conceptual Frameworks Workgroup. (2020). Whitepaper: Defining and investigating cognitive reserve, brain reserve, and brain maintenance. Alzheimer's & Dementia, 16(9), 1305-1311.
  • Stern, Y., Gazes, Y., Razlighi, Q., Steffener, J., & Habeck, C. (2018). A task-invariant cognitive reserve network. Neuroimage, 178, 36-45.
  • Stern, Y., Varangis, E., & Habeck, C. (2021). A framework for identification of a resting-bold connectome associated with cognitive reserve. NeuroImage, 232, 117875.
  • van Loenhoud, A. C., Habeck, C., van der Flier, W. M., Ossenkoppele, R., & Stern, Y. (2020). Identifying a task-invariant cognitive reserve network using task potency. NeuroImage, 210, 116593.
  • Zahodne, L. B., Stern, Y., & Manly, J. J. (2015). Differing effects of education on cognitive decline in diverse elders with low versus high educational attainment. Neuropsychology, 29(4), 649-657.